Science
SCI9039
Nutrition

This course entitled 'Nutrition' is presented by Lumen Learning Achieving the Dream. It contains resources and readings from a variety of sources.

Common Digestive Problems

Before moving to metabolism, we are going learn about some common digestive problems.

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5 Common Digestive Problems

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5.1 Peptic Ulcers

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How Aspirin and ibuprofen Cause Peptic Ulcers

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Endoscopy of Two Giant Gastric Ulcers

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Gallstones

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5.2 Gallstones

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5.3 Irritable Bowel Syndrome

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5.4 Inflammatory Bowel Disease

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Pathology of Crohn's disease

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5.5 Celiac Disease & Gluten

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Celiac Disease

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Is Gluten Sensitivity Actually Real?

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5.6 Diverticulosis and Diverticulit

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5.7 Hemorrhoids

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HEMORRHOIDS | What are Hemorrhoids? What is the Tr...

Macronutrient & Alcohol M...

6 Macronutrient & Alcohol Metabolism Now that we have digested, taken up, absorbed, and transported the macronutrients, the next step is to learn how these macronutrients are metabolized. Alcohol is also included at the end of this chapter, even though it is not a macronutrient. Sections: 6.1 Metabolism Basics 6.2 Carbohydrate Metabolism 6.3 Lipid Metabolism 6.4 Protein Metabolism 6.5 Alcohol Metabolism

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Macronutrient & Alcohol Metabolism

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6.1 Metabolism Basics

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6.11 Cofactors

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6.2 Carbohydrate Metabolism Pathways

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6.21 Monosaccharide Metabolism

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6.22 Glycogenesis & Glycogenolysis

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6.23 Glycolysis

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6.24 Transition Reaction

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6.25 The Citric Acid Cycle

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Krebs Cycle Animation

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6.26 Electron Transport Chain

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Electron Transport

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6.27 Aerobic Glucose Metabolism Totals

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6.28 Anaerobic Respiration

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What Happens When You Run Out of Oxygen!

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6.3 Lipid Metabolism Pathways

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6.31 Lipolysis (Triglyceride Breakdown)

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6.32 Fatty Acid Oxidation (Beta-oxidation)

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6.33 De Novo Lipogenesis (Fatty Acid Synthesis)

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6.34 Ketone Body Synthesis

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6.35 Cholesterol Synthesis

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6.4 Protein Metabolism

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6.41 Transamination, Deamination & Ammonia Removal...

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6.42 Gluconeogenesis

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6.43 Protein Turnover/Degradation

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Proteosomes

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6.5 Alcohol Metabolism

Integration of Macronutri...

Understanding the different metabolic pathways is an important step. However, an integrated understanding of the interconnectedness and tissue specificity of metabolism is where this knowledge really becomes powerful. To this end, we will first cover how the different pathways feed into one another and then talk about the metabolic capabilities of the different tissues in the body. We will then discuss what happens metabolically during different conditions or when consuming certain diets.

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Integration of Macronutrient & Alcohol Metabolism

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7.1 Integration of Macronutrient and Alcohol Metab...

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7.2 Liver Macronutrient and Alcohol Metabolism

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7.3 Extrahepatic Macronutrient Metabolism

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7.31 Muscle Macronutrient Metabolism

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7.32 Adipose Macronutrient Metabolism

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7.33 Brain Macronutrient Metabolism

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7.34 Red Blood Cell Macronutrient Metabolism

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7.4 Metabolic Conditions

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7.41 Fasting

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7.42 Atkins Diet

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7.43 Ornish/Pritikin Diet

Micronutrients Overview &...

Micronutrients consist of vitamins and minerals. In this chapter, an overview of vitamins and minerals will be presented followed by a description of the dietary reference intakes (DRIs), which are used as benchmarks of micronutrient intake.

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Micronutrients Overview & Dietary Reference Intake...

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8.1 Vitamins

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8.2 Minerals

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8.3 Vitamins & Minerals Functional Categories

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8.4 Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs)

Antioxidant Micronutrient...

This chapter will describe what antioxidants are and then discuss the three major antioxidant micronutrients: vitamin E, vitamin C and selenium.

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Antioxidant Micronutrients

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9.1 Antioxidants

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9.11 Free Radicals & Oxidative Stress

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How Antioxidants Work

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9.12 What is an Antioxidant?

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9.13 Meaningful Antioxidant(s)

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9.14 Too Much of a Good Thing? Antioxidants as Pro...

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9.2 Vitamin E

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9.21 Alpha-Tocopherol: Natural vs. Synthetic

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9.22 Vitamin E Absorption, Metabolism, & Excretion

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9.23 Dietary Vitamin E & Amounts Found in Body

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9.24 Vitamin E Deficiency & Toxicity

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9.25 Vitamin E DRI & IUs

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9.3 Vitamin C

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9.31 Vitamin C Absorption & Tissue Accumulation

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9.32 Enzymatic Functions

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9.33 Vitamin C Deficiency (Scurvy)

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9.34 Vitamin C Toxicity, Linus Pauling & the Commo...

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Healthbeat - Kidney Stones

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9.4 Selenium

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9.41 Selenoproteins

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9.42 Selenium Absorption, Excretion, Toxicity & It...

Macronutrient Metabolism ...

This unit from Lumen Learning - Achieving the Dream covers Macronutrient Metabolism Micronutrients

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Macronutrient Metabolism Micronutrients

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10.1 Iodine

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10.11 Thyroid Hormone

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10.12 Iodine Deficiency & Toxicity

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10.2 Manganese

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10.3 Thiamin

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10.31 Thiamin Functions

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10.32 Thiamin Deficiency & Toxicity

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10.4 Riboflavin

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10.41 Riboflavin Functions

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10.42 Riboflavin Deficiency & Toxicity

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10.5 Niacin

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10.51 Niacin Functions

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10.52 Niacin Deficiency & Toxicity

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10.6 Pantothenic Acid

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10.7 Vitamin B6

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10.71 Vitamin B6 Functions

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10.72 Vitamin B6 Deficiency & Toxicity

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PreOpĀ® Patient Education Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Re...

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10.8 Biotin

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10.81 Biotin Functions

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10.82 Epigenetics

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A Tale of Two Mice July 2008

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Chromatin, Histones and Modifications, Rate My Sci...

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10.83 Biotin Deficiency & Toxicity

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ROCKY - "Eggs" - Biotin Deficiency

One-Carbon Metabolism Mic...

This chapter is going to focus on folate and vitamin B12. We will examine this figure in pieces, so that hopefully by the time this chapter is completed, you will understand the role of all these vitamins in 1-carbon metabolism.

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One-Carbon Metabolism Micronutrients

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11.1 Folate & Folic Acid

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11.11 Folate Functions

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11.12 Folate Deficiency & Toxicity

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11.2 Vitamin B12

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11.21 Vitamin B12 Functions

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11.22 Vitamin B12 Deficiency & Toxicity

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11.3 B Vitamins, Homocysteine & Cardiovascular Dis...

Blood, Bones & Teeth Micr...

This chapter is a collection of vitamins and minerals that are involved in the structure or function of blood, bones and teeth.

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Blood, Bones & Teeth Micronutrients

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12.1 Vitamin D

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12.11 Environmental Factors That Impact Vitamin D3...

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12.12 Dietary or Supplemental Vitamin D

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12.13 Response to Low Blood Calcium

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12.14 Response to High Blood Calcium

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12.15 Vitamin D Receptor

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Steroid Hormone

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12.16 Vitamin D Deficiency, Toxicity & Insufficien...

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12.2 Calcium

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12.21 Calcium Absorption

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12.22 Calcium Bioavailability

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12.23 Calcium Functions

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12.24 Calcium Deficiency & Toxicity

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12.3 Phosphorus

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12.31 Phosphorus Functions

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12.4 Fluoride

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12.5 Vitamin K

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12.51 Vitamin K Functions

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Coumadin Rap Song

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12.52 Vitamin K Deficiency & Toxicity

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12.6 Vitamin A

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12.61 Carotenoids

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12.62 Vitamin A Uptake, Absorption, Transport & St...

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12.63 Vitamin A Nuclear Receptors

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12.64 Vitamin A Functions

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12.65 Vitamin A Deficiency & Toxicity

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The Power of Accutane. My Isotretinoin Experience.

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12.7 Iron

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Iron for Breakfast - Sick Science! # 123

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12.71 Iron Uptake & Absorption

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12.72 Iron Transport & Storage

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12.73 Iron Functions

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12.74 Iron Deficiency & Toxicity

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12.8 Zinc

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12.81 Zinc Functions

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12.82 Zinc Deficiency & Toxicity

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12.9 Copper

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12.91 Copper Functions

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12.92 Copper Deficiency & Toxicity

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How High Zinc Intake Can Lead to Copper & Iron Def...

Electrolyte Micronutrient...

In this chapter, electrolytes will be explained before learning more about the 4 electrolyte micronutrients. Then, hypertension will be discussed, along with the impact of these micronutrients on the condition.

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Electrolyte Micronutrients

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13.1 Electrolytes

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13.2 Sodium

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13.3 Chloride

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13.4 Potassium

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13.5 Magnesium

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13.6 Hypertension, Salt-Sensitivity & the DASH Die...

Chapter 1 Nutrition Basic...

This unit from Lumen Learning - Achieving the Dream covers Nutrition Basics

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1.1 The Basic of Nutrition

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1.1 The Basic of Nutrition

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1.2 Epidemiology

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1.3 In Vitro & Animal Studies

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1.4 Human Intervention Studies/Clinical Trials

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1.5 Nutrition Research Statistics

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1.6 Publishing Research

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1.7 Interpreting Research

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Bomb Calorimetry

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1 Nutrition Basics

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1.11 Calories (Food Energy)

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1.12 Phytochemicals, Zoochemicals & Functional Foo...

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1.13 The Scientific Method

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Peer Review in 3 Minutes

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What is the Cochrane Collaboration?

2 Energy-Yielding Macronu...

As you have learned, there are three energy-yielding macronutrients: carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids. This chapter goes more in depth about these major dietary components.

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2 Energy-Yielding Macronutrients

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2.1 Carbohydrates

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2.11 Simple Carbohydrates

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2.12 Sugar Alcohols (Polyols, Sugar Replacers)

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2.13 Alternative Sweeteners

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2.14 Oligosaccharides

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2.15 Polysaccharides

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2.151 Starch

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2.152 Glycogen

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2.153 Fiber

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2.2 Proteins

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2.21 Amino Acids

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2.22 Protein Synthesis

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DNA Transcription (Basic)

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mRNA Translation (Basic)

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2.23 Protein Structure

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Protein Structure

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2.24 Protein Functions

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Cellular Metabolism, Enzimes

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Hormones

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2.25 Types of Amino Acids

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2.26 Amino Acid Structures

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2.27 Protein Quality

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2.28 Protein-Energy Malnutrition

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Marasmus (Medical Condition)

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Kwashiorkor Images

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2.3 Lipids

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2.31 How Does Fat Differ From Lipids?

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2.32 Fatty Acids

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2.33 Fatty Acid Naming & Food Sources

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2.34 Essential Fatty Acids & Eicosanoids

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2.35 Triglycerides

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2.36 Phospholipids

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2.37 Sterols

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What's the Difference Between Sugar and High Fruct...

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Tooth Decay / Cavities / Dental Caries

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Beano - Lesson 2

Macronutrient Digestion

This unit from Lumen Learning - Achieving the Dream covers Macronutrient Digestion

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3 Macronutrient Digestion

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3.1 Digestion at a Glance

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Enzymes and Digestion

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3.2 Mouth to the Stomach

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What to do about Acid Reflex GERD GastroEsophageal...

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GERD 101 (Health Short)

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3.3 Stomach

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The Stomach - 1/2

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3.4 Small Intestine

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3.41 Digestive Hormones, Accessory Organs & Secret...

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How the Body Works : The Pancreas

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3.42 Carbohydrate Digestion in the Small Intestine

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3.43 Protein Digestion in the Small Intestine

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3.44 Lipid Digestion in the Small Intestine

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3.5 Macronutrient Digestion Review

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3.6 The Large Intestine

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3.61 Probiotics & Prebiotics

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Probiotics

4 Macronutrient Uptake, A...

The term absorption can have a number of different meanings. Not everything that is taken up into the enterocyte from the lumen will be absorbed, so the term uptake refers to compounds being transported into the enterocyte. Absorption means that a compound is transported from the enterocyte into circulation. Under most circumstances, compounds that are taken up will then be absorbed. After this chapter, hopefully this distinction between these terms will be clear. After later micronutrient chapters, hopefully you will understand the reason for emphasizing this distinction.

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4 Macronutrient Uptake, Absorption & Transport

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4.1 Crypts of Lieberkuhn & Enterocyte Maturation

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4.2 Uptake Lineup & Cell Membranes

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4.2 Uptake Lineup & Cell Membranes

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4.2 Uptake Lineup & Cell Membranes

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Active Transport

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Voyage inside the Cell: Membrane

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4.3 Types of Cell Uptake/Transport

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4.31 Passive Uptake/Transport

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Osmosis

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Passive Transport

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4.32 Active Uptake/Transport

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Active Transport

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Endocytosis

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4.4 Carbohydrate Uptake, Absorption, Transport & L...

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Small Intestine

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4.5 Glycemic Response, Insulin, & Glucagon

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4.51 Diabetes

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4.52 Glycemic Index

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4.53 Glycemic Load

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4.6 Protein Uptake, Absorption, Transport & Liver ...

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Small Intestine

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4.7 Lipid Uptake, Absorption & Transport

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Lymph Movement

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LYMPHATIC SYSTEM

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4.71 Lipoproteins

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Lipoproteins

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Cholesterol

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MEDICAL - How Cholesterol Clogs your Arteries (Ath...